GREAT CINEMATOGRAPHERS


 

   


KARL FREUND

 

Born: 16 January 1890, Königsdorf an der Elbe [now Dvur Králové, Czech Republic], Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, as Karl W. Freund. A.k.a. Karl 'Pappy' Freund.

Died: 3 May 1969, Santa Monica, Calif., USA.

Career: Went to Berlin in 1901. Entered film industry in 1906 as an apprentice projectionist with the Spezial-Fabrik für Kinematographen und Films Alfred Duskes. In 1907, he went to work for the Internationale Kinematographen- und Licht-Effekt-Gesellschaft. In 1908 he became a Pathé Frères newsreel cameraman. In 1910 he worked for Sascha-Film in Vienna. Went to Belgrade in 1911 to set up a film laboratory for the Brothers Savic. In 1912 he became chief cameraman at Projektions-AG Union [PAGU], Tempelhof Studio. In 1914, while working for [Oskar] Messter's Projection GmbH in Berlin, he experimented with sound projection and made some crude sound films with singer Enrico Caruso. Became doph in 1913 for Gad/Nielsen-Filme in Neubabelsberg. Became free-lance in 1919. Was prod head at Fox-Europa-Film from 1926-29. Began experimenting with color film in London, UK, and in the Astoria Studios in New York. Under contract with Universal; in 1935 with MGM and in 1947 with Warner Bros.

In 1944 he founded the Photo Research Corporation of Burbank, Calif., to manufacture Norwood exposure meters and tv-cameras.

Left feature film prod in 1950 and moved to television. Became superv doph for Desilu Productions.

Also active as director.

Was a member of the ASC since 1930.

Retired in 1960.

Appeared in the doc 'You Can't Fool a Camera' [1941; 11m].

Awards: 'Oscar' AA [1937] for 'The Good Earth'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1941; b&w] for 'The Chocolate Soldier'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1941; color; shared] for 'Blossoms in the Dust'; Scientific/Technical 'Oscar' Class III [1954; shared] for the design and development of a direct reading brightness meter; Filmband in Gold [1962]; Honorary Deutscher Filmpreis [1965].



GO TO FILMS
GO TO TELEVISION
GO TO FILMS AS DIRECTOR

It's rather an unfortunate phrase to use of a man built like Karl Freund but truly, he was one of the giants. Despite the mere scattering of titles we know from his German days, the evidence of his versatility is clear. In 'Varieté' the camera joins the circus and takes its cue from the acro­bats; in 'Tartüff' it grinds down to match Emil Jannings' bizarre slow-motion performance. Freund's treatment of cities, whether reproduced in the studio, as in 'Der letzte Mann', pre-existing, as in 'Berlin', or completely imagined, as in 'Metropolis', is endlessly fascinating. During this time he was of course closely associated with 'expressionism', that most useless of critical generalizations. In its most conventional manifestation - shadows, menace and dread - the connection continued during Freund's first few years in America, via his involvement in Universal's horror cycle. He directed one of them himself, 'The Mummy', actually one of the weaker entries, which pales beside the Whales. But 'Mad Love' was a masterpiece of controlled hysteria, and it seems extraordinary and a terrible waste that Freund never directed again. After it, in fact, his career became less distinctive as he settled into MGM-land, and he ended his days in television. From Murnau to Lucille Ball... a unique progression. [Bob Baker in 'Film Dope', No. 18, September 1979.]

 

 

During a career that lasted nearly 50 years, cinematographer Karl Freund contributed his artfully innovative camerawork to more than 100 German and American films, including the classic 'Metropolis' and the solid 'Key Largo'. Unfortunately, superlative examples of filmmaking are not the sole entries in Freund's filmography. Numerous forgettable or already forgotten comedies, romances, and musicals are also present, a perhaps inevitable consequence of Freund's long career. Symptomatic of his commitment to perfection was his refusal to discriminate a 'programmer' from a masterpiece, which provided many of the films he lit and shot with their only noteworthy feature: excellent cinematography.

In 1906, when he was 16 years old, Freund quit his apprenticeship with a manufacturer of rubber stamps to work as an assistant projectionist for a Berlin film company. Displaying a prodigious technical inventiveness toward and understanding of lighting and the motion picture camera, Freund graduated within two years from projectionist to cameraman. As one of Germany's motion picture pioneers, Freund spent his earliest years in film shooting an assortment of material, from shorts and newsreel footage to several of the actress Asta Nielsen's films and the early efforts of, among others, directors F.W. Murnau and Fritz Lang.

In the 1920s Freund worked at UFA, Germany's great government-supported film studio, where he collaborated with Murnau, Lang, and others on a number of the films that collectively created the golden age of the German cinema, films such as Murnau's 'Der letzte Mann' and E.A. Dupont's 'Varieté'. For the revolutionary 'Der letzte Mann', the camera became both narrator and character, relating and interpreting the story of the demoted doorman so lucidly that title cards were superfluous. Freund and scriptwriter Carl Mayer enriched the simple plot of Murnau's film with artistically purposeful camera movement and lighting that set the expressionistic sobriety of the film proper against the high-key clarity of its controversial epilogue.

In 1929, Freund's experiments with a color process for 35mm film took him first to New York and then to Hollywood where, following the failure of the process, he joined Universal as a cinematographer.

Freund shot two horror films for Universal, Tod Browning's 'Dracula' and Robert Florey's 'Murders in the Rue Morgue', the perfect showcase for Freund's abilities with chiaroscuro lighting. In 1932, Universal assigned Freund to direct his first motion picture, 'The Mummy'.

Shortly after moving to MGM in 1935, Freund directed his final picture, the macabre 'Mad Love'. While under contract to MGM, Freund also established the Photo Research Corporation in Burbank, where he developed a highly successful incident exposure meter.

Filming John Huston's 'Key Largo' [1947-48] was the highlight of Freund's three years with Warner Bros. Although Freund is never named in James Agee's essay on Huston, 'Undirectable Director', Agee does comment on the rightness of the camerawork in 'Key Largo': "The lighting is stickily fungoid. The camera is sneakily 'personal'; working close and in almost continuous motion, it enlarges the ambiguous suspensefulness of almost every human move."

In the summer of 1951, Freund was directing his Photo Research Corporation when Lucille Ball, with whom he had worked at MGM, contacted him about the new television series that she and Desi Arnaz wanted to film live with three simultaneously operating 35mm motion picture cameras, a then relatively unprecedented and difficult approach. Freund joined the staff of the 'I Love Lucy' show as director of photography, inventing an overhead lighting system that was responsible for the exceptional quality of the program's images. Freund supervised the photography of more than 400 episodes of 'I Love Lucy' before resigning from the series in April 1956. [From article by Nancy Jane Johnston on the filmreference.com website.]


By KARL FREUND, ASC

['Art Photography' magazine, December, 1953 - Vol. 4, No. 6-54]

 

Despite the 43 years I've devoted to cinematography, I must admit that I was scarcely prepared for the many problems which were to confront me upon my initial excursion into the realm of television with the 'I Love Lucy' show. Fortunately, this motion picture experience helped to cushion many of the serious problems and aided me in adapting myself to this new medium.

Today, many of the initial difficulties we've experienced have, to some extent, been solved, but we still remain in the infancy of a fascinating new entertainment medium. There are formidable problems ahead, all of which will be conquered in due time. As for myself, I have enormously enjoyed being a part of the team which has already overcome some of the preliminary hurdles.

The Lucille Ball - Desi Arnaz show was a challenge from the start. It was decided that, for the first time, TV cameras would be replaced with three motion picture cameras to allow more flexibility in editing and to improve the photographic quality over kinescope recording.

This, I felt, was a legitimate approach to the situation. I expected very little variation from the ritual of photographing regular motion pictures - but I had not taken into consideration the unique problems involved. I was soon to be faced with them.

 

 

First of all, a live show requires an audience. This necessitated a regular studio sound stage equipped with bleachers to hold some 300 people. Above the stage a series of directional microphones and loud speakers had to be installed.

To give the audience a clear view of the program, and to allow the cameras total mobility without interference from floor cables, the lights for the sets had to be placed above the stage.

It became obvious almost at once that the overhead light placement was hardly flattering to the photographing of the performers. While the print value seemed up to par when projected in a studio projection room, they showed too much contrast when viewed over a closed TV circuit. Thus, we were faced with the fact that the greatest difference between standard motion pictures technique and TV films is the subject lighting contrast, which is required.

The immediate question was what method we should use to obtain the desired compression in the positive print. The solution was fairly simple.

After careful survey, we selected a method that would involve no departure from standard practice in processing laboratory operations. That is, in exposing the original negative, use a subject lighting contrast considerable lower than that normally used for conventional black and white motion picture photography and process both the negative and print in the normal way.

It requires four days to line up each weekly show of 'I Love Lucy' and 'Our Miss Brooks'. Two of these days are for rehearsals. At the end of the second day the cameraman sees a run-through during which he can make notes and sketches of positions to be covered by the cameras and instruct the electrical crew as to where lights are to be placed. The last two days are occupied by rehearsals with cameras.

Since a show with audience participation must go on at a specified time, this schedule must be religiously adhered to by everyone concerned, including the cast. An hour and a half is the actual shooting time.

To film each show we use three BNC Mitchell cameras with T-stop calibrated lenses on dollies. The middle camera usually covers the long shot using 28mm to 50mm lenses. The two close-up cameras, 75 to 90 degrees apart from the center camera, are equipped with 3" to 4" lenses, depending on the requirements for coverage. The only floor lights used are mounted on the bottom of each camera dolly and above each lens. They are controlled by dimmers.

There is a crew of four men to each camera: the cameraman, his assistant, a 'grip' and a 'cable man'. Unlike TV, where one man generally handles the camera movements and views the results immediately, this technique requires absolute coordination between members of the crew.

Every movement of each dolly is marked on the floor for every scene. And since all the movements of the camera are cued from the monitor box, the entire crew works from an intercom system.

As for myself, I utilize a two-circuit intercom. This allows me to talk separately to the monitor booth and the camera crew on one, the electricians handling the dimmers and the switchboard on the other.

Retakes, a standard procedure on the Hollywood scene, are not desirable in making TV films with audience participation. Dubbed-in laughs are artificial and, consequently, used only in emergencies. Close-ups, another routine step in standard filmmaking, were discarded since such glamour treatment stood out like a sore thumb.

We still have some way to go before TV viewers will have the opportunity of seeing films with the quality which can be favorably compared with those to which we have been accustomed in our theatres.

As I watch television films on my own set I am continually aware that I do not have a complete control of the end results. For there is an engineer in every television station control booth who can change the screen image according to his instructions and depending upon the condition of his equipment. And there are the TV viewers who are their own 'engineers'. I believe that the time is not too distant when the only engineers will be the technicians who actually create the film that is transmitted. Only when that day arrives will we really have film quality comparable to motion picture standards as we know them today?


 

 FILMS

1906

Der Hauptmann von Köpenick [Heinrich Bolten-Baeckers] b&w; prod Internationale Kinematographen- und Lichteffekt GmbH (Berlin)

1907

Das Lied von der Glocke [?] b&w; prod Internationale Kinematographen- und Lichteffekt GmbH (Berlin)

1911

Der Liebling der Frauen [?] b&w

1912

Jadna majka [Boza Savic] b&w; 300mtr; or ph Luj de Beri (= Louis Pitrolf De Beery)

1912

Pampulik als Affe [Alexander Graf Kolowrat] b&w; unreleased

1912

Pampulik kriegt ein Kind [Alexander Graf Kolowrat] b&w; unreleased

1912

Pampulik hat Hunger [Alexander Graf Kolowrat] b&w; unreleased

1913

Die Film-Primadonna [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1913

Engelein - Mimisches Lustspiel [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1913

Zapatas Bande [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1913

S 1 - Mimisches Schauspiel in 3 Akten [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Emil Schünemann

1913

Das Kind ruft/Elena Fontana [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Das Feuer. Die alte Gnädige [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Der Hund von Baskerville: I. Teil/The Hound of the Baskervilles [Rudolf Meinert] b&w; part II ph by Werner Brandes

1914

Die Tochter der Landstraße [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Aschenbrödel [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Die ewige Nacht [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Engeleins Hochzeit [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Vordertreppe - Hintertreppe [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1914

Die weißen Rosen [Urban Gad] b&w; cph: Axel Graatkjær

1915

Frau Eva [Robert Wiene] b&w

1916

Abseits vom Glück [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1916

Der Mann im Spiegel [Robert Wiene] b&w

1916

Bummelstudenten/Pumpgenies [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1916

Das wandernde Licht [Robert Wiene] b&w

1916

Der Ruf der Liebe [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1916

Die Räuberbraut [Robert Wiene] b&w

1916

Gelöste Ketten [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1916

Die Ehe der Luise Rohrbach [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1916

Feenhände [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1916

Der Liebesbrief der Königin [Robert Wiene] b&w

1917

Christa Hartungen [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Die Prinzessin von Neutralien [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Gefangene Seele [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Höhenluft [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Die Claudi vom Geiserhof [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Die Faust des Riesen. 1. Teil [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Die Faust des Riesen. 2. Teil [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Gräfin Küchenfee [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1917

Edelsteine [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Auf Probe gestellt [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Das Geschlecht derer von Ringwall [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Agnes Arnau und ihre drei Freier [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Das Maskenfest des Lebens [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Die Sieger [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Die Heimkehr des Odysseus [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Die blaue Laterne [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1918

Der tote Gast. Der Fall Rödern [William Kahn] b&w

1918

Die Dame, der Teufel und die Probiermamsell [Rudolf Biebrach] b&w

1919

Phantome des Lebens [Josef Coenen] b&w

1919

Die Welteroberer [Robert Wiene] b&w

1919

Die Gesunkenen [Fred Sauer] b&w

1919

Die Prostitution/Das gelbe Haus/Im Sumpfe der Großstadt [Richard Oswald] b&w

1919

Die sich verkaufen. Die Prostitution. 2. Teil [Richard Oswald] b&w

1919

Rausch/Intoxication [Ernst Lubitsch] b&w

1919

Der Knabe in Blau/Der Todessmaragd/Emerald of Death [F.W. Murnau] b&w; 54m; cph: Carl Hoffmann

1919

Die Arche/The Arc [Richard Oswald] b&w

1919

Die letzten Menschen. Die Arche. 2. Teil [Richard Oswald] b&w

1919

Satanas [F.W. Murnau] b&w

1919

Die Spinnen. 2. Teil: Das Brilliantenschiff [Fritz Lang] b&w; part 1 ('Der goldene See') was ph by Emil Schünemann

1920

Die Nacht auf Goldenhall [Conrad Veidt] b&w

1920

Der Bucklige und die Tänzerin [F.W. Murnau] b&w

1920

Der Januskopf - Eine Tragödie am Rand der Wirklichkeit/Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde/Love's Mockery [F.W. Murnau] b&w; cph: Carl Hoffmann (finished the film) & Carl Weiss

 

#2-3: English version

 

1920

Der Golem - Wie er in die Welt kam. Bilder nach Begebenheiten aus einer alten Chronik [Paul Wegener] b&w (also tinted version); uncred cph: Robert Baberske; prod Union-Film (for UFA)

1920

Katharina die Große [Reinhold Schünzel] b&w

1920

Die Frau im Delphin, oder 30 Tage auf dem Meeresgrund [Artur Kiekebusch-Brenken] b&w

1920

Der verlorene Schatten [- Der Student von Prag] [- Ein romantisches Spiel]/The Lost Shadow [Rochus Gliese] b&w; cph: Erich Waschneck

1920

Marizza, genannt die Schmuggler-Madonna [F.W. Murnau] b&w

1920

[Aus dem Schwarzbuch eines Polizeikommissars] Loge Nr. 11 [Arsen von Cserépy & Arthur Somlay] b&w

1920

Verlogene Moral - Drama in 5 Akten/Brandherd/Totenklaus/Torgus [Hanns Kobe] b&w

1921

Der tote Gast [Karl Freund] b&w; + prod (Karl Freund Film GmbH, Berlin)

1921

Der Schwur des Peter Hergatz [Alfred Halm] b&w

1921

Louise de Lavallière/Am Liebeshof des Sonnenkönigs [Georg Burghardt] b&w

1921

Der Roman der Christine von Herre [Ludwig Berger] b&w

1921

Die Ratten [Hanns Kobe] b&w

1921

Kinder der Finsternis 1: Der Mann aus Neapel [Ewald André Dupont] b&w; cph: Helmar Lerski

1921

Kinder der Finsternis 2: Kämpfende Welten [E.A. Dupont] b&w; cph: Helmar Lerski

1921

Der brennende Acker - Das Drama eines Ehrgeizigen - 6 Akte [F.W. Murnau] b&w; ph 2nd part; ph 1st part: Fritz Arno Wagner

1922

Tiefland [Adolf E. Licho] b&w; 67m; cph: Curt Courant, Karl Hasselmann & Friedrich Weinmann

1922

Herzog Ferrantes Ende [Paul Wegener & Rochus Gliese] b&w

1922

Lucrezia Borgia [Richard Oswald] b&w; cph: Carl Drews & Karl Vaß; + tech superv

1923

Die Austreibung - die Macht der zweiten Frau [F.W. Murnau] b&w

1923

Die letzte Sensation des Zirkus Farini/Der Tiger im Zirkus Farini [Uwe Jens Krafft] b&w; cph: Ludwig Lippert, Max Grix & Akos Farkas

1923

Die Finanzen des Großherzogs/Finances of the Grand Duke [F.W. Murnau] b&w; cph: Franz Planer

1923

Der große Sensationsprozeß [Karl Freund] b&w

1923

Mikaël/Michael/Chained [: The Story of the Third Sex]/Heart's Desire [Carl Theodor Dreyer] b&w; cph: Rudolph Maté (ext); + small part

 

#1: [Center with Stachow-Kamera] with F.W. Murnau [right]

#2: Actor Emil Jannings - dir F.W. Murnau - Karl Freund - "Der letzte Mann"

 

1924

Der letzte Mann/The Last Laugh [F.W. Murnau] b&w; optical efx: Ernst Kunstmann; During the shooting, Karl Freund used the light and easy-to-use Stachow-Kamera for the first time - he strapped it to his chest in order to achieve the effect of a moving, subjective perspective

1925

Tartüff/Herr Tartüff/Der Scheinheilige [F.W. Murnau] b&w

1925

Varieté/Vaudeville/Variety/Jealousy [E.A. Dupont] b&w; cph: Carl Hoffmann; trick ph: Eugen Schüfftan

1925

Manon Lescaut [Artur Robison] b&w; uncred cph; ph: Theodor Sparkuhl; trick ph: Eugen Schüfftan

1925

Faust - Eine deutsche Volkssage [F.W. Murnau] scheduled as doph, but broke his leg and was replaced by Carl Hoffmann

 

#1: [Left/hat] with dir Fritz Lang [right/carried]

#2: [Right] with actor Rudolf Klein-Rogge [left] - "Metropolis"

 

1925

Metropolis [Fritz Lang] b&w; cph: Günther Rittau; spec vfx: Eugen Schüfftan; optical efx: Konstantin Irmen-Tschet & Ernst Kunstmann; trick ph: Helmar Lerski, Erich Kettelhut & Konstantin Irmen-Tschet

1927

Doña Juana [Paul Czinner] b&w

1928

A Night in London/Eine Nacht in London [Lupu Pick] b&w

1928

Fräulein Else [Paul Czinner] b&w; cph: Robert Baberske & Adolf Schlasy

1929

Sleeping Partners [Seymour Hicks] b&w

1929

All Quiet on the Western Front [Lewis Milestone] b&w; uncred ph final 'Butterfly' seq; ph: Arthur Edeson

1930

The Boudoir Diplomat [Malcolm St. Clair] b&w; 68m

1930

Dracula [Tod Browning] b&w; 2uc: Joseph Brotherton; pfx: Frank Booth; filming 29 September-15 November (add scenes: 13 December; retakes: 2 January 1931); a Spanish-language version was dir by George Melford and ph by George Robinson (starting 23 October); 'The picture was photographed in full silent frame aperture for sound-on-disc presentation and for a subtitled silent version with intercut dialogue titles. When the sound-on-film prints were made [Vitaphone was rapidly becoming obsolete] the picture area was masked to Western Electric standards to allow for the sound track and some masking at the top and bottom. This operation shifted the optical center and changed the compositions noticeably. The visuals gain considerably when seen at full aperture.' [From article by George Turner in 'American Cinematographer', May 1988.]

1930

Up for Murder/Fires of Youth [Monta Bell] b&w; 68m

1931

The Bad Sister [Hobart Henley] b&w

1931

Personal Maid [Monta Bell & (uncred fill-in) Lothar Mendes] b&w

1931

Strictly Dishonorable [John M. Stahl] b&w; uncred cph: Jackson Rose

1931

Frankenstein [Robert Florey] dir R. Florey was replaced by James Whale and ph K. Freund by Arthur Edeson

1931

Murders in the Rue Morgue [Robert Florey] b&w; process ph: Frank Williams

1932

Scandal for Sale/Ambition [Russell Mack] b&w

1932

Back Street [John M. Stahl] b&w

1932

Airmail/Air Mail [John Ford] b&w; aph: Elmer Dyer; spec pfx: John P. Fulton

1932

Afraid to Talk/Merry-Go-Round [Edward L. Cahn] b&w

1933

The Kiss Before the Mirror [James Whale] b&w; 67m

1935

The Great Ziegfeld [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w; cph Ziegfeld Roof seq; ph: Oliver T. Marsh; started as an Universal prod with dir Edward Sutherland; prod was taken over by MGM

 

[Left] with dir Sidney Franklin and actors Charley Grapewin and

Paul Muni [right] - "The Good Earth"

 

1936

The Good Earth [Sidney Franklin; (uncred) Victor Fleming & (dir process shots) Gustav Machatý] b&w; China ph: Charles G. Clarke, Russell A. Cully, H.C. Smith, 'Newsreel' Wong & George W. Hill (superv); loc ph Cedar City: Walter Lundin

1936

Camille [George Cukor] b&w; cph: William Daniels

1936

Parnell [John M. Stahl] b&w; uncred cph: George Folsey (was replaced by K. Freund)

 

[Left/seated] with Greta Garbo - "Conquest"

 

1937

Conquest/Marie Walewska [Clarence Brown & (uncred) Gustav Machatý] b&w

1937

Man-Proof [Richard Thorpe] b&w

1937

Port of Seven Seas [James Whale] b&w

1938

Three Comrades [Frank Borzage] started the prod, but was replaced after 2 weeks by Joseph Ruttenberg

1938

Letter of Introduction [John M. Stahl] b&w

1938

Barricade [Gregory Ratoff] b&w; extensive retakes ph in early 1939

1938

Tail Spin [Roy Del Ruth] b&w

1939

Rose of Washington Square [Gregory Ratoff] b&w

1939

Golden Boy [Rouben Mamoulian] b&w; cph: Nicholas Musuraca

1939

Balalaika [Reinhold Schünzel] b&w; cph: Joseph Ruttenberg

1939

Green Hell [James Whale] b&w

1939

The Earl of Chicago [Richard Thorpe & (uncred loc footage in the UK) Victor Saville] b&w; uncred ph spec seq; ph: Ray June

1939

Florian [Edwin L. Marin] b&w

1940

Pride and Prejudice [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w; uncred forest scenes ph: Sidney Wagner

1940

We Who Are Young [Harold S. Bucquet] b&w; uncred fill-in ph (last half of film because Freund was ill): John F. Seitz

1940

Comrade X [King Vidor] b&w; uncred ph spec night ext; ph: Joseph Ruttenberg

1940

Keeping Company [S. Sylvan Simon] b&w

1941

Blossoms In the Dust [Mervyn LeRoy] c; cph: W. Howard Greene

 

[Center] with actors Nelson Eddy & Risë Stevens

"The Chocolate Soldier"

 

1941

The Chocolate Soldier [Roy Del Ruth] b&w; uncred fill-in ph (while Freund was ill): Harold Rosson

1941

Tortilla Flat [Victor Fleming & (fill-in) Sam Zimbalist] b&w; uncred cph: Harold Rosson, Sidney Wagner & (Monterey ext) Jack Smith

1942

A Yank at Eton [Norman Taurog] b&w; cph: Charles Lawton Jr.; uncred ext ph: Clyde De Vinna

1942

The War Against Mrs. Hadley [Harold S. Bucquet] b&w

1942

Du Barry Was a Lady [Roy Del Ruth] c

1943

A Guy Named Joe [Victor Fleming] b&w; cph: George Folsey; uncred loc ph: Jack Smith & George Webber

1943

The Cross of Lorraine [Tay Garnett] started the prod, but was replaced by Sidney Wagner

1943

Cry 'Havoc' [Richard Thorpe] c

1943

The Seventh Cross/The Seven Crosses [Fred Zinnemann] b&w

1944

The Thin Man Goes Home [Richard Thorpe & (add scenes) Norman Taurog] b&w; fill-in ph (while Freund was recovering from an illness): Joseph Ruttenberg

1944

Without Love [Harold S. Bucquet] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Danny Hall

1945

Dangerous Partners [Edward L. Cahn] b&w

1945

A Letter for Evie [Jules Dassin] b&w

1945

Two Smart People [Jules Dassin] b&w

1946

Undercurrent [Vincente Minnelli] b&w

 

[Center] with dir Richard Thorpe [left] and crew member - "This Time for Keeps"

 

1946

This Time for Keeps [Richard Thorpe] c

1947

Wallflower [Frederick De Cordova] b&w

 

With Shirley Temple and Jean Porter [right] - "That Hagen Girl"

 

1947

That Hagen Girl [Peter Godfrey] b&w

1947

The Decision of Christopher Blake [Peter Godfrey] b&w

 

 

1947

Key Largo [John Huston] b&w; spec efx: William McGann (dir) & Robert Burks; filmed December 1947-March 1948

1948

South of St. Louis [Ray Enright] c

1948

Montana [Ray Enright] c

1949

Bright Leaf [Michael Curtiz] b&w; filmed mid-November 1949-late January 1950

 

 TELEVISION

 

 

1951

I Love Lucy/The Lucy Show [ep #1 'The Girls Want to Go to a Nightclub' dir by Marc Daniels (MD), #2 'Be a Pal' dir by MD, #3 'The Diet' dir by MD, #4 'Lucy Thinks Ricky Is Trying to Murder Her' dir by MD, #5 'The Quiz Show' dir by MD, #6 'The Audition' dir by MD, #7 'The Seance' dir by MD, #8 'Men Are Messy' dir by MD, #9 'The Fur Coat' dir by MD, #10 'Lucy Is Jealous of Girl Singer' dir by MD, #11 'Drafted' dir by MD, 12 'The Adagio' dir by MD, #13 'The Benefit' dir by MD, #14 'The Amateur Hour' dir by MD, #15 'Lucy Plays Cupid' dir by MD, #16 'Lucy Fakes Illness' dir by MD, #17 'Lucy Writes a Play' dir by MD, #18 'Breaking the Lease' dir by MD, #19 'The Ballet' dir by MD, #20 'The Young Fans' dir by MD, #21 'New Neighbors' dir by MD, #22 'Fred and Ethel Fight' dir by MD, #23 'The Moustache' dir by MD, #24 'The Gossip' dir by MD, #25 'Pioneer Women' dir by MD, #26 'The Marriage License' dir by MD, #27 'The Kleptomaniac' dir by MD, #28 'Cuban Pals' dir by MD, #29 'The Freezer' dir by MD, #30 'Lucy Does a TV Commercial' dir by MD, #31 'The Publicity Agent' dir by MD, #32 'Lucy Gets Ricky on the Radio' dir by MD, #33 'Lucy's Schedule' dir by MD, #34 'Ricky Thinks He's Getting Bald' dir by MD & #35 'Ricky Asks for a Raise' dir by MD] 179-part sitcom series/b&w, 1951-57; 1st season, 1951-52; prod Desilu for CBS-tv; filmed Sep 1951-May 1952; see above

1952

Our Miss Brooks [e.g. ep #3 'The Embezzled Dress' dir by Al Lewis (AL), #12 'The Hobby Show' dir by AL, #13 'Christmas Show 1952' dir by AL & #29 'Marinated Hearing' dir by AL] 130-part sitcom series/b&w, 1952-56; 1st season, 1952-53; began on CBS radio in 1948; prod Desilu for CBS-tv

1952

I Love Lucy/The Lucy Show [ep #36 'Job Switching' dir by Marc Daniels (MD), #37 'The Saxophone' dir by MD, #38 'The Anniversary Present' dir by MD, #39 'The Handcuffs' dir by MD, #40 'The Operetta' dir by MD, #41 'Vacation from Marriage' dir by William Asher (WA), #42 'The Courtroom' dir by WA, #43 'Redecorating' dir by WA, #44 'Ricky Loses His Voice' dir by WA, #45 'Lucy Is Enceinte' dir by WA, #46 'Pregnant Women Are Unpredictable' dir by WA, #47 'Lucy's Showbiz Swan Song' dir by WA, #48 'Lucy Hires an English Tutor' dir by WA, #49 'Ricky Has Labor Pains' dir by WA, #50 'Lucy Becomes a Sculptress' dir by WA, #51 'Lucy Goes to the Hospital' dir by WA, #52 'Sales Resistance' dir by WA, #53 'The Inferiority Complex' dir by WA, #54 'The Club Election' dir by WA, #55 'The Black Eye' dir by WA, #56 'Lucy Changes Her Mind' dir by WA, #57 'No Children Allowed' dir by WA, #58 'Lucy Hires a Maid' dir by WA, #59 'The Indian Show' dir by WA, #60 'Lucy's Last Birthday' dir by WA, #61 'The Ricardos Change Apartments' dir by WA, #62 'Lucy Is Matchmaker' dir by WA, #63 'Lucy Wants New Furniture' dir by WA, #64 'The Camping Trip' dir by WA, #65 'Ricky and Fred Are TV Fans' dir by WA & #66 'Never Do Business with Friends' dir by WA] 2nd season, 1952-53; filmed May 1952-May 1953; see 1951

1953

Our Miss Brooks [e.g. ep #50 'Christmas Show 1953' dir by Al Lewis (AL), #60 'The Parlor Game' dir by AL & #69 'Just Remember the Red River Valley' dir by AL] 2nd season, 1953-54; see 1952

1953

I Love Lucy/The Lucy Show [ep #67 'Ricky's Life Story' dir by William Asher (WA), #68 'The Girls Go Into Business' dir by WA, #69 'Lucy and Ethel Buy the Same Dress' dir by WA, #70 'Equal Rights' dir by WA, #71 'Baby Pictures' dir by WA, #72 'Lucy Tells the Truth' dir by WA, #73 'The French Revue' dir by WA, #74 'Redecorating the Mertzes' Apartment' dir by WA, #75 'Too Many Crooks' dir by WA, #76 'Changing the Boys' Wardrobe' dir by WA, #77 'Lucy Has Her Eyes Examined' dir by WA, #78 'Ricky's Old Girlfriend' dir by WA, #79 'The Million-Dollar Idea' dir by WA, #80 'Ricky Minds the Baby' dir by WA, #81 'The Charm School' dir by WA, #82 'Sentimental Anniversary' dir by WA, #83 'Fan Magazine Interview' dir by WA, #84 'Oil Wells' dir by WA, #85 'Ricky Loses His Temper' dir by WA, #86 'Home Movies' dir by WA, #87 'Bonus Bucks' dir by WA, #88 'Ricky's Hawaiian Trip' dir by WA, #89 'Lucy Is Envious' dir by WA, #90 'Lucy Writes a Novel' dir by WA, #91 'Lucy's Club Dance' dir by WA, #92 'The Black Wig' dir by WA, #93 'The Diner' dir by WA, #94 'Tennessee Ernie Ford Visit' dir by WA, #95 'Tennessee Ernie Hangs On' dir by WA, #96 'The Golf Game' dir by WA & #97 'The Sublease' dir by WA] 3rd season, 1953-54; filmed May 1953-April 1954; see 1951

1954

I Love Lucy/The Lucy Show [ep #98 'The Business Manager' dir by William Asher (WA), #99 'Mertz and Kurtz' dir by WA, #100 'Lucy Cries Wolf' dir by WA, #101 'The Matchmaker' dir by WA, #102 'Mr. and Mrs. TV Show' dir by WA, #103 'Ricky's Movie Offer' dir by WA, #104 'Ricky's Screen Test' dir by WA, #105 'Lucy's Mother-In-Law' dir by WA, #106 'Ethel's Birthday' dir by WA, #107 'Ricky's Contract' dir by WA, #108 'Getting Ready' dir by WA, #109 'Lucy Learns to Drive' dir by WA, #110 'California, Here We Come!' dir by WA, #111 'First Stop' dir by WA, #112 'Tennessee Bound' dir by WA, #113 'Ethel's Hometown' dir by WA, #114 'L.A. at Last!' dir by WA, #115 'Don Juan and the Starlets' dir by WA, #116 'Lucy Gets in Pictures' dir by WA, #117 'The Fashion Show' dir by WA, #118 'The Hedda Hopper Story' dir by WA, #119 'Don Juan Is Shelved' dir by WA, #120 'Bullfight Dance' dir by WA, #121 'Hollywood Anniversary' dir by WA, #122 'The Star Upstairs' dir by WA, #123 'In Palm Springs' dir by WA, #124 'The Dancing Star' dir by WA, #125 'Harpo Marx' dir by WA, #126 'Ricky Needs an Agent' dir by WA & #127 'The Tour' dir by WA] 4th season, 1954-55; filmed April 1954-April 1955; see 1951

1954

December Bride [various] 157-part sitcom series/b&w, 1954-59; prod Desilu for CBS-tv

1955

Those Whiting Girls [pilot dir by Jerry Thorpe] 26-part sitcom series/b&w, 1955 & 1957; twice a summer replacement for 'I Love Lucy'; prod Desilu for CBS-tv

1955

I Love Lucy/The Lucy Show [ep #128 'Lucy Visits Grauman's' dir by William Asher, #129 'Lucy and John Wayne' dir by James V. Kern (JVK), #130 'Lucy and the Dummy' dir by JVK, #131 'Ricky Sells the Car' dir by JVK, #132 'The Great Train Robbery' dir by JVK, #133 'The Homecoming' dir by JVK, #134 'Person to Person/Face to Face' dir by JVK, #135 'Lucy Goes to a Rodeo' dir by JVK, #136 'Nursery School' dir by JVK, #137 'Ricky's European Booking' dir by JVK, #138 'Passports' dir by JVK, #139 'Staten Island Ferry' dir by JVK, #140 'Bon Voyage' dir by JVK, #141 'Lucy's Second Honeymoon' dir by JVK, #142 'Lucy Meets the Queen' dir by JVK, #143 'The Fox Hunt' dir by JVK, #144 'Lucy Goes to Scotland' dir by JVK, #145 'Paris at Last!' dir by JVK, #146 'Lucy Meets Charles Boyer' dir by JVK, #147 'Lucy Wants a Paris Gown' dir by JVK, #148 'Lucy in the Swiss Alps' dir by JVK, #149 'Lucy Gets Homesick in Italy' dir by JVK, #150 'Lucy's Italian Movie' dir by JVK, #151 'Lucy's Bicycle Trip' dir by JVK, #152 'Lucy Goes to Monte Carlo' dir by JVK & #153 'Return Home from Europe' dir by JVK] 5th season, 1955-56; filmed Sep 1955-April 1956; see 1951

1960

Open Windows [Mitchell Leisen] unsold pilot

 

 FILMS AS DIRECTOR

1921

Der tote Gast [+ prod/ph] see Films

1923

Der große Sensationsprozeß [+ ph] see Films

 

#1: [Right] directing Boris Karloff

#2: With actress Zita Johann

 

1932

The Mummy [72m] ph: Charles Stumar

1933

Moonlight and Pretzels/Moonlight and Melody [ph: William Miller]

1933

Madame Spy [ph: Norbert Brodine]

1934

The Countess of Monte Cristo [ph: Charles Stumar]

1934

Uncertain Lady [65m] ph: Charles Stumar

1934

I Give My Love [69m] ph: George Robinson

1934

Gift of Gab [70m] ph: George Robinson & (uncred) Harold Wenstrom

 

trailer

 

1935

Mad Love/The Hands of Orlac [68m] ph: Chester Lyons & Gregg Toland

 

 MISCELLANEOUS

1913

Die Insel der Seligen [Max Reinhardt] c.asst; ph: Friedrich Weinmann

1913

Die Firma heiratet/The Perfect Thirty-Six [Carl Wilhelm] c.asst; ph: Friedrich Weinmann

1913

Eine Venezianische Nacht [Max Reinhardt] c.asst; ph: Friedrich Weinmann

1919

Augen. Im Banne der Hypnose [Artur Kiekebusch-Brenken & Georg Schubert] lab work; ph: Paul Holzki

1920

Mascotte [Felix Basch] small part; ph: Frederik Fuglsang

1926

K 13 513. Die Abenteuer eines Zehnmarkscheines/Uneasy Money [Berthold Viertel] prod superv; ph: Robert Baberske & Helmar Lerski

1926

1000 Schritte Charleston. Teil 1, 2, 3 & 4 [Franz W. Koebner] b&w; Künstlerische Oberleitung (artistic superv); c.asst: Robert Baberske; series of four short training films for learning the Charleston; prod Deutsche Vereins-Film AG (Defa - Deutsche Fox-Film AG, Berlin)

1926

Madame wünscht keine Kinder/Madame Wants No Children [Alexander Korda] prod superv; ph: Theodor Sparkuhl & Robert Baberske

1926

Der Sohn der Hagar/Out of the Mist [Fritz Wendhausen] prod superv; ph: Robert Baberske, Günther Krampf & Theodor Sparkuhl

 

 

1927

Berlin die Symphonie der Großstadt/Berlin. Symphonie einer Großstadt/Berlin: Symphony of a Great City [Walter Ruttmann] prod superv/co-scrpl/ph superv; ph: Robert Baberske, Reimar Kuntze & Laszlo Schäffer

1930

The Lottery Bride [Paul L. Stein] b&w-c; uncred ph cons color seq; ph: Ray June