With Piper Laurie & Jean Simmons [1957]

1952

1935

               

JOSEPH RUTTENBERG

Born: 4 July 1889, St. Petersburg, Russia. Moved with his family to the USA in 1893 and settled in Boston.

Died: 1 May 1983, Los Angeles [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center], Calif., USA.

Career: Joined the 'Boston American' newspaper as a copy boy. Became a news reporter and still photographer. By 1914 he started filming and producing his own newsreels. In 1915 he joined Fox Studios [Fox Film Corporation] in New York City [until 1926]. In the late 1920s he spent 4 years at Paramount's Astoria Studios ph short subjects and working with ph George J. Folsey. Moved to Hollywood. Joined MGM in 1935. Retired in 1968.

Was a member of the ASC since 1935. Was a member of the BSC.

Appeared in the doc 'You Can't Fool a Camera' [1941; 10m; ph: Jackson Rose].

Awards: 'Oscar' AA [1938] for 'The Great Waltz'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1940; b&w] for 'Waterloo Bridge'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1941; b&w] for 'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde'; 'Oscar' AA [1942; b&w] for 'Mrs. Miniver'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1943; b&w] for 'Madame Curie'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1944; b&w] for 'Gaslight'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1953; b&w] for 'Julius Caesar'; Golden Globe Award [1954; color] for 'Brigadoon'; 'Oscar' AA [1956; b&w] for 'Somebody Up There Likes Me'; 'Oscar' AA [1958; color] & Golden Laurel Award '2nd Place' [1959] for 'Gigi'; 'Oscar' AA nom [1960; color; shared] for 'Butterfield 8'.


> Go to FILMS



1957

'The old pro' to studio executives, actors, and film directors, Joseph Ruttenberg was a cinematographer whose technical mastery was matched by a visual artistry that enriched the films of directors more concerned with drama and acting than visual style. When he worked with directors who did care about lighting and composition, the films they made often were nominated for Academy Awards.

At the 'Boston American' Ruttenberg discovered photography. First as a runner who hand delivered news film to the laboratory, then as a darkroom technician, then as a press photographer, Ruttenberg learned how to make pictures with speed and under adverse conditions. [The] combination of expertise and invention won him a commission to photograph European stage sets for the Boston Opera. There, in Paris, on the eve of the First World War, he fell under the spell of the moving picture.

[Back in America], Ruttenberg chose not to return to his previous work. Instead he formed a partnership with a Yale friend. They purchased a hand-cranked movie camera, built a film processing unit in a Boston loft, and for nearly six months produced a weekly newsreel for the local Loew's theaters. Minimal profits and a demanding schedule led the two to eventually abandon the enterprise, but the experience was to be useful when Ruttenberg moved to New York City and employment with William Fox.

Ruttenberg rose through the ranks, from slate-holder and still photographer [at $18 a week] to assistant cameraman and then cinematographer [when he left Fox in 1926 he was making $175 a week].

Lighting, camera movement, and location filming were inhibited in the first years of sound movies. There can be little doubt that Ruttenberg was wary about moving West in such circumstances. So when the Fox production company moved to Hollywood in 1926, Ruttenberg chose to remain in New York, where he soon was making screen tests with sound for MGM, RKO, and Universal.

In 1935 Ruttenberg finally made the move to Hollywood, briefly working at Warner Bros., and then shifting to MGM; by this time the traumatic period of the transition to sound was over, and Ruttenberg's talent as a lighting cinematographer could be used with the same freedom as in the 1920s.

Ruttenberg's camerawork was distinctive for three reasons. First, he composed the film image on two planes. The primary subject of interest, one or more actors, would appear in sharp focus, and the background would be softer, slightly out of focus. In consequence, actors would "project" out of the screen, acquiring an almost three-dimensional weight. Ruttenberg considered the "deep focus" technique used by Gregg Toland for William Wyler and Orson Welles to be a mistake, the loss of an opportunity to direct the eye of the spectator.

The second reason was his lighting. While many cinematographers delegate lighting to assistants, Ruttenberg believed lighting was central to cinematography. With it he could mould and change what was in front of the camera. Often he would defy union rules to handle the lights himself.

The importance of lighting in films like 'Waterloo Bridge', 'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde' and 'Gaslight', where shadows are atmosphere, does not need to be pointed out. Less obvious is the lighting used for a film like 'A Day at the Races'. Filming the Marx Brothers, Ruttenberg often noted, was an adventure because they never did the same thing twice, especially on retakes. Multiple cameras, and an even, relatively shadowless lighting scheme was necessary if separate shots were to be cut together smoothly when the film was completed. 'Three Comrades', shot in 1938 for Frank Borzage, is one of Ruttenberg's masterpieces of lighting. The "spirituality" of Borzage's characters is given tangible substance in this film: Margaret Sullivan, at times, is almost luminous.

Ruttenberg's camerawork was also distinctive in a third way. Given the opportunity, and at times on his own initiative, he would seek to film whole sequences in a single take. As early as the 1920s, when he was working at the Astoria Studio without screen credit, Ruttenberg constructed dolly mechanisms, camera cranes, even rolling bridges so that shots of 30 or more seconds could be made. Some of his shots defy understanding: in 'Gigi' he films in a room full of mirrors, but the camera and lights are not seen, and in 'Brigadoon' his camera sweeps around dancers on a hilltop, hovering and flying, floating in a space that seems free of gravity. [From article by Robert A. Haller.]

·····

ASSIGNMENT OVERSEAS

By Joseph Ruttenberg, ASC/BSC

Never before have so many Hollywood productions been photographed abroad. For directors of photography, this has meant - aside from visits to new and interesting foreign lands - working with unfamiliar equipment and technicians and putting up with certain labor restrictions and foibles. In most instances, the visiting cinematographer has fared very successfully. I have nothing but good things to say about associates with whom I worked in England months ago while filming 'The Miniver Story' at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Elstree studios in London.

With actress Greer Garson - "The Miniver Story"

Today, with the growing trend of the off-the-lot production, many cinematographers may expect to receive assignments to photograph a production in Britain, France or Rome - the three most active centers of overseas production at this time. In such event, the thought that naturally comes to mind is, "What are the conditions to be met there with regard to technicians and equipment?"

A London assignment, of course, affords the greatest promise, although conditions in both France and Italy are fast improving. The London studio situation is more comparable to ours here in America. The big hurdle, and one that must be settled before the director of photography lands in England, is that country's rigid restrictions against the use of foreign motion picture technicians and labor. This is understandable, in view of the English industry's economic setbacks during the past year, which have greatly limited the amount of work available for the large number of British motion picture technicians.

We had this problem before starting to shoot 'The Miniver Story'. It required considerable negotiation in advance, but, fortunately, the British technicians saw a way to a solution. It simply narrowed down to this: actress Greer Garson refused to make the picture in England unless I could direct the photography. Making the picture in England meant more than 600 actors and technicians would receive steady paychecks for several months. If the picture was not made there, a lot of people would continue to remain on the unemployed lists. So a compromise was reached whereby I could assume direction of the photography, providing that MGM employed a stand-by cinematographer.

When the picture started, there was the noticeable stiff formality of precisely adhering to the covenants of the technician's union, but before we had concluded the first day's work, the technicians and I were getting along famously. These men are very eager to work with Hollywood cameramen in order to learn more of the advanced Hollywood techniques. As a result, there is a strong feeling for a mutual interchange of technicians on productions both here and abroad as a means of increasing the British technicians' skills.

Actually, many of these men are as skilled and resourceful as most of our technicians. But there are a lot of men among them who are comparatively new in the industry and therefore haven't the experience of years that most of our technicians have. Another thing, they haven't developed the drive and systematic handling of equipment that you find in Hollywood studios; as a result, average production schedules are much longer than in Hollywood. There, the 'lighting cameraman' [comparable to our director of photography] lights the sets, as does the gaffer in Hollywood. Certain technicians in Hollywood would blush to see me swinging a lamp in place or moving cables, gobos and barn doors, as I frequently did on this picture. However, I think our crew greatly benefited by their experiences in making this picture, for wherever possible, I reorganized their working procedures to more nearly conform with those followed in Hollywood. As a result, we greatly speeded up production.

I think that the British motion picture industry and its technicians are presently in about the same stage of growth as we were a decade ago. Most of the men are 'eager beavers' - extremely willing to learn and progress, and yet getting a lot of personal satisfaction from their work. In my opinion, the big men of Britain's future motion picture industry are now being developed.

As for equipment, the British have the best that can be found anywhere. Perhaps the greatest single factor that retards development of the technical side of the industry here is the practice of using a different camera crew for each production. In Hollywood, most directors of photography have the same camera and grip crews on every picture. At the British studios, the cinematographer invariably is given a new and strange crew of men, all of whom must acquaint themselves with the general working conditions and habits of the cinematographer to whom they are assigned. Working with Hollywood technicians, I think, has had tremendous influence on these men, and the 'team' idea seems to be catching on.

Early in the production of 'The Miniver Story', Freddie Young, the president of the British Society of Cinematographers, and I became fast friends. Months later, I was guest of honor at one of the Society's monthly dinner meetings. Subsequent to this meeting, I was voted in as a member of the BSC, and in due time received a welcoming letter and my membership card. [From 'American Cinematographer', October 1950.] [See also Freddie Young]



 FILMS [1 reel = c. 10m]

1917

The Blue Streak [William Nigh] b&w; 5 reels; cph: A. Lloyd Lewis; prod Fox Film Corporation (FFC)

1917

The Slave [William Nigh] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC; or ph: A. Lloyd Lewis

1917

Wife Number Two [William Nigh] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1917

Thou Shalt Not Steal [William Nigh] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1917

The Painted Madonna [Oscar Lund] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1917

A Heart's Revenge [Oscar Lund] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1918

The Debt of Honor/Her Debt of Honor [Oscar Lund] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1918

Peg of the Pirates [Oscar Lund] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1918

Doing Their Bit/Doing Our Bit [Kenean Buel] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1918

The Woman Who Gave [Kenean Buel] b&w; 6 reels; prod FFC

1918

Woman, Woman! [Kenean Buel] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1919

A Fallen Idol [Kenean Buel] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1919

My Little Sister [Kenean Buel] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1920

The Shark [Dell Henderson] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1920

From Now On [Raoul Walsh] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1920

The Tiger's Club [Charles Giblyn] b&w; 6 reels; prod FFC

1920

The Thief [Charles Giblyn] b&w; 6 reels; prod FFC

1921

The Mountain Woman [Charles Giblyn] b&w; 6 reels; prod FFC

1921

Know Your Men [Charles Giblyn] b&w; 6 reels; prod FFC

1921

Beyond Price [J. Searle Dawley] b&w; 5 reels; prod FFC

1921

A Virgin Paradise [J. Searle Dawley] b&w; cph: Bert Dawley; prod FFC

1922

Silver Wings [Edwin Carewe & John Ford (prologue seq)] b&w; cph: Robert Kurrle; prod FFC

1922

The Town That Forgot God [Harry Millarde] b&w; cph: Albert Wilson; prod FFC

1922

Who Are My Parents?/A Little Child Shall Lead Them [J. Searle Dawley] b&w; prod FFC; or ph: Bert Dawley

1922

My Friend the Devil [Harry Millarde] b&w; prod FFC

1923

If Winter Comes [Harry Millarde] b&w; prod FFC

1923

Does It Pay? [Charles Horan] b&w; prod FFC

1925

School for Wives [Victor Hugo Halperin] b&w; cph: Jack Zanderbrock; prod Victory Pictures

1925

The Fool [Harry Millarde] b&w; prod FFC

1926

Summer Bachelors [Allan Dwan] b&w; prod FFC

[Left/glasses] with dir D.W. Griffith [hat] - "The Struggle"

1931

The Struggle [D.W. Griffith] b&w; last film dir by D.W. Griffith

1932

The Wiser Sex [Berthold Viertel] b&w; uncred cph; ph: George Folsey

1933

Million Dollar Melody [Jack White] b&w; short/22m

1933

Hizzoner [Ray McCarey] b&w; short/20m

1933

The Good Bad Man [Jack White] b&w; short/22m

1933

Poppin' the Cork [Jack White] b&w; short/24m

1933

North of Zero [Jack White] b&w; short/18m

1934

The Knife of the Party [Leigh Jason] b&w; short/20m

1934

Bubbling Over [Leigh Jason] b&w; short/20m

1934

Frankie and Johnnie [Chester Erskine & (uncred retakes in 1935) John H. Auer] b&w; 67m

1934

Woman in the Dark/Woman in the Shadows [Phil Rosen] b&w; 68m

1934

Gigolette/Night Club/Mistaken Heiress [Charles Lamont] b&w; 65m

1935

The People's Enemy/Racketeers [Crane Wilbur] b&w; 65m

1935

Men Without Names [Ralph Murphy] b&w; 67m; uncred cph (?); ph: Ben Reynolds

1935

Man Hunt [William Clemens] b&w; 60m

1935

Three Godfathers/Miracle in the Sand [Richard Boleslawski] b&w

1936

Fury [Fritz Lang] b&w

1936

Piccadilly Jim [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w

1936

Mad Holiday [George B. Seitz] b&w

1936

A Day at the Races [Sam Wood] b&w & tinted (sepia/blue); uncred cph (?): Leonard South

1937

Double Wedding [Richard Thorpe] b&w; uncred add loc ph (Carmel-By-the-Sea); ph: William Daniels & (uncred; replaced Daniels) Harold Rosson

1937

Big City/Skyscraper Wilderness [Frank Borzage & (uncred Jack Dempsey seq) George B. Seitz] b&w; ph Jack Dempsey seq: Clyde De Vinna

1937

Live, Love and Learn [George Fitzmaurice] b&w; fill-in ph (while June was ill); ph: Ray June

1937

Everybody Sing [Edwin L. Marin] b&w

1938

The First Hundred Years [Richard Thorpe] b&w

1938

Three Comrades [Frank Borzage] b&w; montages: Slavko Vorkapich; replaced ph Karl Freund after 2 weeks of filming

1938

The Shopworn Angel [H.C. Potter] b&w; uncred cph (?): William Daniels; montages: Slavko Vorkapich

1938

The Great Waltz [Julien Duvivier; (uncred) Victor Fleming (retakes) & Josef von Sternberg] b&w

1938

Spring Madness [S. Sylvan Simon] b&w

1938

Dramatic School [Robert B. Sinclair] b&w; uncred cph (?); ph: William Daniels

1938

The Ice Follies of 1939 [Reinhold Schünzel] b&w-c; b&w ph; color ph (Cinderella finale): Oliver T. Marsh

1939

Tell No Tales [Leslie Fenton] b&w; montages: Peter Ballbusch

1939

On Borrowed Time [Harold S. Bucquet (replaced H.C. Potter before start of filming)] b&w

1939

The Women [George Cukor] b&w & c (fashion show); cph: Oliver T. Marsh

1939

Balalaika [Reinhold Schünzel] b&w; cph: Karl Freund

1939

Broadway Melody of 1940 [Norman Taurog] b&w; cph: Oliver T. Marsh

1940

Waterloo Bridge [Mervyn LeRoy] b&w

1940

The Philadelphia Story [George Cukor] b&w

1940

Comrade X [King Vidor] b&w; uncred spec night ext ph: Karl Freund; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie

1940

Ziegfeld Girl [Robert Z. Leonard & (mus numbers) Busby Berkeley] b&w; uncred cph; ph: Ray June

1941

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde [Victor Fleming] b&w; montages: Peter Ballbusch

1941

Two-Faced Woman [George Cukor] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

With actress Katharine Hepburn

"Woman of the Year"

1941

Woman of the Year [George Stevens] b&w

1941

Mrs. Miniver [William Wyler] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1942

Crossroads [Jack Conway] b&w

[Middle/glasses] with Mervyn LeRoy [with viewfinder] & actress Susan Peters - "Random Harvest"

1942

Random Harvest [Mervyn LeRoy] b&w

1942

Nostradamus and the Queen (Prophecies of Nostradamus #3) [?] b&w; short/12m

1942

Presenting Lily Mars [Norman Taurog & (uncred; add scenes) Roy Del Ruth] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1943

Madame Curie [Mervyn LeRoy (replaced Albert Lewin)] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1943

Gaslight/Murder in Thornton Square [George Cukor] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1944

Mrs. Parkington [Tay Garnett] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1944

The Thin Man Goes Home [Richard Thorpe & (uncred; add scenes) Norman Taurog] b&w; uncred fill-in ph (while Freund was ill); ph: Karl Freund

1944

The Valley of Decision [Tay Garnett & (uncred; fill-in dir add scenes) George Cukor] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1945

Adventure [Victor Fleming] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1946

Desire Me/A Woman of My Own [(uncred) Jack Conway (?), George Cukor (dir most of the film), Mervyn LeRoy (finished the film) & Victor Saville (fill-in dir while Cukor was ill)] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1947

Killer McCoy [Roy Rowland] b&w

1947

B.F.'s Daughter/Polly Fulton [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe; montages: Peter Ballbusch

1948

Julia Misbehaves [Jack Conway] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1948

The Bribe [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1948

That Forsyte Woman/The Forsyte Saga [Compton Bennett] c

1949

Side Street [Anthony Mann] b&w; sfx: A. Arnold Gillespie

1949

Summer Stock [Charles Walters] ph: Robert Planck; some sources credit Ruttenberg with cph (late December 1949-early January 1950), the time he was shooting 'The Miniver Story' in the UK, but maybe he returned to the USA for Christmas and the New Year

1949

The Miniver Story [H.C. Potter & (uncred; replaced Potter) Victor Saville] b&w; pfx: Tom Howard; shot in the UK September 1949-February 1950; see above

1950

Cause for Alarm! [Tay Garnett] b&w

1950

It's a Big Country [: An American Anthology] [Clarence Brown, Don Hartman, John Sturges, Richard Thorpe, Charles Vidor, Don Weis & William A. Wellman] b&w; 8 seg (but seg #3 was cut from film); other ph: John Alton, Ray June & William Mellor; filmed April-September

1950

The Magnificent Yankee/The Man with 30 Sons [John Sturges] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1950

The Great Caruso [Richard Thorpe] c; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe; montage seq: Peter Ballbusch

1950

Kind Lady [John Sturges] b&w

1951

Too Young to Kiss [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w; uncred cph (?): Ray June; montage seq: Peter Ballbusch

1951

Young Man with Ideas/Young Man in a Hurry [Mitchell Leisen] b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie

1951

Because You're Mine [Alexander Hall] c; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1952

The Prisoner of Zenda [Richard Thorpe] c; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1952

Small Town Girl [Leslie (= László) Kardos] c

[Right] with dir Joseph L. Mankiewicz, James Mason & Deborah Kerr - "Julius Caesar"

1952

William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar [Joseph L. Mankiewicz] b&w; (+ 70bu [1969]); sfx: Warren Newcombe

1952

Invitation to the Dance [Gene Kelly] c; ph seg #3 'Sinbad the Sailor'; ph seg #1 'Circus', #2 'Ring Around the Rosy' & (deleted) 'Dance Me a Song': F.A. Young; released in 1957

1952

Latin Lovers [Mervyn LeRoy] c; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1953

The Great Diamond Robbery [Robert Z. Leonard] b&w

1953

Her Twelve Men/Her 12 Men/Miss Baker's Dozen [Robert Z. Leonard] c; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe; montage seq: Peter Ballbusch

1953

Brigadoon [Vincente Minnelli] cs/c; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1954

The Last Time I Saw Paris [Richard Brooks] c; uncred loc ph France: Freddie Young; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie

[Extreme right] - "The Prodigal" 

1954

The Prodigal [Richard Thorpe] cs/c; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Warren Newcombe

1954

Interrupted Melody [Curtis Bernhardt] cs/c; cph: Paul Vogel (replaced Ruttenberg, who was injured in an automobile accident); sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1955

Kismet [Vincente Minnelli & (uncred; finished film) Stanley Donen ] cs/c; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1955

The Swan [Charles Vidor] cs/c; cph: Robert Surtees (replaced Ruttenberg, who fell ill)

[Left] with Robert Wise [right/bottom]

"Somebody Up There Likes Me"

1956

Somebody Up There Likes Me [Robert Wise] b&w; sfx ph: Warren Newcombe

1956

The Vintage [Jeffrey Hayden] cs/c

1956

Man on Fire [Ranald MacDougall] b&w

1957

Until They Sail [Robert Wise] cs/b&w; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Lee LeBlanc

1957

Gigi [Vincente Minnelli] cs/c; retakes ph by Ray June and dir by Charles Walters in February 1958

1958

The Reluctant Debutante [Vincente Minnelli] cs/c

[Right] with Sessue Hayakawa - "Green Mansions"

1958

Green Mansions [Mel Ferrer] c; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie, Lee LeBlanc & Robert R. Hoag; presented as a CinemaScope prod, but shot with Panavision lenses

1959

The Wreck of the Mary Deare [Michael Anderson] cs/c; addph: Freddie Young & Harold E. Wellman; sfx ph: A. Arnold Gillespie & Lee LeBlanc

1959

Please Don't Eat the Daisies [Charles Walters] scheduled as ph (?), but replaced by Robert Bronner

1959

The Subterraneans [Ranald MacDougall (replaced Denis Sanders after 2 weeks of shooting)] cs/c; sfx ph: Lee LeBlanc; replaced ph Robert Bronner

1960

Butterfield 8 [Daniel Mann] cs/c; cph: Charles Harten

1960

Two Loves/Spinster [Charles Walters] cs/c; sfx ph: Robert R. Hoag & Lee LeBlanc

1961

Ada [Daniel Mann] cs/c; spec vfx: Lee LeBlanc

1961

Bachelor in Paradise [Jack Arnold] cs/c

1962

Who's Got the Action? [Daniel Mann] p/c; process ph: Farciot Edouart

1962

It Happened at the World's Fair [Norman Taurog] p/c

1962

The Hook [George Seaton] p/b&w

1963

Who's Been Sleeping in My Bed? [Daniel Mann] p/c; spec pfx: Paul K. Lerpae; process ph: Farciot Edouart

1963

A Global Affair [Jack Arnold] Metroscope/b&w

1964

Sylvia [Gordon Douglas] b&w; sfx ph: Paul K. Lerpae

1964

Love Has Many Faces [Alexander Singer] c

1965

Harlow [Gordon Douglas] p/c

1966

The Oscar [Russell Rouse] c; process ph: Farciot Edouart; sfx ph: Paul K. Lerpae

1967

Speedway [Norman Taurog] p/c; spec vfx: Carroll L. Shepphird


 MISCELLANEOUS

1929

The Cocoanuts [Robert Florey & Joseph Santley] uncred c.op; ph: George Folsey

1929

Applause/Every Day Is Sunday [Rouben Mamoulian] ?; ph: George Folsey

1931

The Smiling Lieutenant [Ernst Lubitsch] ?; ph: George Folsey

1931

The Cheat [George Abbott] uncred 2nd cam; ph: George Folsey